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Geography & Topography

Capital: Khartoum

Area: 1,886,068 km2

Population: 34 318 385

Language: Arabic, English

Religion: Islam

Currency: Sudanese Pound




Sudan is a country in north east Africa with a population of around 34 million people and sits to the south of Egypt. The capital city is Khartoum and the world’s longest river, the Nile, divides the country between the East and West. Sudan is very diverse, with over five hundred ethnic groups spread across the country’s territory, which is the largest in Africa. The country has been a crossroads between North, East andWest Africafor hundreds of years, and is inhabited by a mixture of Sub-Saharan Arabs and Africans.

Sudan has two official languages under its constitution, English and Arabic. Sudan has a rich and unique culture that has been through chronic instability and repression during recent history. The imposition of the strict sharia law in 1989 caused many of the prominent musicians and poets to be imprisoned or forced to flee the nation. Amongst other popular contemporary genres in Sudan, the hip hop community is attempting to utilise the genre’s unifying power and global popularity as a universal language to bring unity to the country.

Performing Arts

The most recognizable instruments in traditional Sudanese music are:

Senior man playing oud

Oud: The oud is a pear-shaped stringed instrument commonly used in North African and Middle Eastern music. The oud is readily distinguished by its lack of frets and smaller neck.



Tar, a long-necked waisted instrument


Tar: The tār is a long-necked, waisted Iranian instrument. It has been adopted by other cultures and countries such as Sudan. The word tar means ’string’ in Farsi, and it might have the same meaning in other languages influenced by Farsi.




Some interesting facts:

  • Sudan is the largest country in Africa
  • Sudan borders nine countries: Egypt, Libya, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic and Eritrea.
  • In 400 BC, the ox-driven water wheel was introduced to the Sudan and it still plays a vital role in the country’s economy.

Sudanese community in Australia:

More information on the Sudanese community: